Steeped in antiquity, Tarn Taran dates back to the times of the fifth sikh Guru Shri Guru Arjan Dev ji (1563-1606). He laid the foundation of this city in 1596 and the milestone was laid for the welfare of people with the establishment of Shri Tarn Taran Sahib Temple. Tarn Taran Sahib was part of the Bhangi Misl ruled by a powerful Sikh family of Dhillon clan from (1716-1810). In 1947, the year of the Partition of India and the Partition of Punjab, Tarn Taran was the only tehsil (district) in Punjab along with Shiekhupura, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Hoshiapur, Kapurthala, Amritsar, Lyallpur, Patiala with a majority Sikh population. The city was a center of the Sikh insurgency during the 1980s and early 1990s .

Guru Sahib created this city for the welfare of people. He was the first to initiate the noble cause of curing the leprosy patients. It was later strengthened by the setup of leprosy Home by Church Missionary society in 1885.

Tarn Taran is the pivot of Sikh culture and has many historical Gurdwaras. With so many Gurudwaras of historic importance, this makes the Majha belt a historic sikh centre of gathering and interest. The city has many historical Gurudwaras which include Darbar Sahib Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji, Gurdwara Guru Ka Khuh (Gurdwara of the Guru’s Well), Gurdwara Bibi Bhani Da Khuh, Gurdwara Takkar Sahib, Gurdwara Lakeer Sahib, Gurudwara Baba Garja Singh Baba Bota Singh, Gurdwara Jhulne Mahal, and Thatti Khara.

Tarn Taran Sahib is a city in the state of Punjab, in far northern India. Tarn Taran district was formed in 16th Jun, 2006, during the celebrations marking the 400th martyrdom day of Shri Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The declaration to this effect was made by Captain Amarinder Singh, Chief Minister of Punjab. With this, it became the 19th district of Punjab. It is 5059 Sq. Km in area. It is surrounded by District of Amritsar in the North, District Kapurthala in the East, District Ferozepur in the South and Pakistan in the West. This is the city which connects Amritsar with all the cities of Majha. The main occupation in this area is agriculture and agro industry with very few other industries.